Cargo containers gain steam as building blocks of new homes


Cargo containers, long a staple of international trade, are designed to be affordable, sturdy and water-tight. So it’s no surprise that for decades they’ve been used by the military, the needy — or just the hip — for other uses, including dwellings.

What’s new is that the enormous Corten steel boxes are now gaining mainstream popularity as building blocks for affordable homes in a variety of sizes and types.

“When we built out first container home about eight years ago in upstate New York, the locals all laughed and said, ‘What in the world is that?’,” say Tim Steele, founder of Steele House, a New York company that designs and builds container structures.

“Now we tend to get a building permit in about a week. As soon as a community gets one, then it’s easier to build the next one. In the past 10 years, they’ve become pretty mainstream as homes, actually,” he says.

The containers’ strength and durability explain their appeal, says Steele.

For a two-container house, his company tries to keep the cost in the $100,000 range. “That’s a 640-square-foot one bedroom — something that’s definitely in the tiny house category,” he says.

John Nafziger and Sarah Strauss, co-founders of the Brooklyn, New York-based architecture and design firm Bigprototype, which has worked with Steele on some container-home projects, say inquiries about designing homes using shipping containers are way up in the last couple years.

Why Shipping Containers?

Shipping containers typically cost only $1800 – $5000 (some as little as $800) depending on their size. They are readily available for purchase as containers that are shipped to their final destinations are usually too expensive to ship back. These containers are also eco-friendly, as they are re-purposed into homes instead of being melted down when they are scrapped or shipped back empty. Containers are also “virtually indestructible”. Typical homes in the US seem like they are made of paper, they can’t handle extreme climate conditions. Containers, on the other hand, are tough. They are build to handle heavy loads, harsh climate conditions, and being handled by cranes. Containers can also be easily stacked to form multi-story homes. These sturdy houses can be welded together and built in a very short time, and handle just about anything that is thrown at them. Just like with any other irregular structures, container homes do have some disadvantages, so be sure to do some research. Here are some modern container homes that you can drool over.

“Before, containers were mainly for low-income or disaster-relief housing. Now it’s got a lot more stylistic cachet,” Nafziger says.

He calls the homes “great eye candy on the block. It’s recycled material, and for people interested in being environmentally conscious, it’s a very attractive idea.”

The containers come in standard 20- or 40-foot sizes. They can sell for as little as a few hundred dollars each, so it’s not surprising that they have caught the eye of architects and others.

But Strauss points out that many people underestimate the cost of retrofitting a shipping container for use as a home.

“Once you do all the work involved in designing and building a container home that meets building code requirements, the cost is actually about the same as for building a comparable traditional home,” she says, estimating the final cost to be around $150 per square foot.

“It is a metal box. So it presents some serious design challenges in terms of keeping warm in winter and cool in our climate, plus it’s humid in this part of the country, so the walls tend to have condensation,” she says. “And as you put in the necessary insulation and do everything else that has to be done, that adds to the cost.”

Other challenges include the fact that, as with a cardboard box, punching out sections of the container weakens its structure, so windows and doors must be carefully planned and adequately reinforced.